Head of Department: Dr. Geethani Galgoda

Histopathology (or histology) involves the examination of sampled whole tissues under the microscope. Histopathology tests are conducted by LHD mainly to observe whether cancer cells are detected in a patient.

Specimens received by LHD undergoes tissue preparation and subsequently treated and analysed using techniques appropriate to the type of tissue and the investigation required.

At LHD we conduct a number of routine tests within our state-of-the-art laboratory. Namely:

  • Routine histopathology
  • Cytology

Screening is conducted for different types of specimens including:

  • Urines
  • Sputum
  • Bronchial lavage/brushings
  • Effusions
  • Fine Needle Aspirates (FNA’s)
  • Cyst fluids
  • CSF’s


  • Immunohistochemistry

A lab test that uses antibodies to test for certain antigens (markers) in a sample of tissue. The antibodies are usually linked to an enzyme or a fluorescent dye. When the antibodies bind to the antigen in the tissue sample, the enzyme or dye is activated, and the antigen can then be seen under a microscope. Immunohistochemistry is used to help diagnose diseases, such as cancer. It may also be used to help tell the difference between different types of cancer.

  • Immunofluorescence

This is a laboratory technique, which is based on the use of specific antibodies which have been chemically conjugated to fluorescent dyes.

These labelled antibodies bind directly or indirectly to cellular antigens. The technique has a number of different biological applications including evaluation of cells in suspension, cultured cells, tissue, beads and in microarrays.

  • Special stain

Special stains are used to help visualize and/or identify structures and substances in sections. CPL can provide most standard special stains.

While cytology tests will help formulate an initial diagnosis, immunohistochemistry is used to arrive at a definite diagnosis, where it is impossible diagnose a disease via routine histology tests. Immunofluorescence tests are used for diseases that are caused by immunoglobulin accumulation and special stains are used as confirmatory tests to differentiate between various features of tissues that are not very significantly recognized by routine histology alone.